Author: Kania Dekoruma
Indonesia is famous for its unique archipelago architectural wealth.
One of them is traditional Balinese architecture. The uniqueness of traditional Balinese architecture is very distinctive and has been studied both at home and abroad and has influenced several modern architectural streams.
In fact, the popularity of traditional Balinese architecture cannot be separated from its rich philosophy and inherent cultural elements. Come on,
get to know traditional Balinese architecture more closely through 5 interesting facts from the following traditional Balinese architecture!
7 Philosophies of Traditional Balinese Architecture
Traditional Balinese architecture is very closely related to elements of Hindu culture and teachings. This is reflected in the following 7 philosophies:
• Tri Hata Karana: harmony and balance of 3 elements of life, namely: atma (human), angga (nature), and khaya (the gods).
• Tri Mandala: structure or zoning l
• Sanga Mandala: spatial zoning arrangement
• Tri Angga: hierarchical arrangement of buildings with other realms
• Tri Loka: the relationship between buildings and nature
• Asta Kosala Kosali: 8 architectural design guidelines on symbols, temples, stages and units of measurement
• Arga Segara: sacred axis of mountains and oceans
Balinese Traditional Architecture with Traditional Measurement Methods
In accordance with the philosophy of "Asta Kosala Kosali" in traditional Balinese architecture, the measurement system in the Balinese construction process uses a method that is still very traditional and adapted to the ergonomic aspects of the occupants of Balinese houses, namely by using the unit of measurement of the occupants. Some of the units of measurement from traditional Balinese architecture are:
• Aug: a fingertip (two fingers: two fingers, evening searches: four fingers)
• Alek: along the middle finger, and akacing: along the index finger
• Must: make a fist with the thumb facing upwards
• Cubit / cubit: an inch from the hand from the middle wrist to the tip of the middle finger that is exposed from the adult.
• Depa: the size of two stretches of hands stretched from left to right, and several other measurement methods of traditional Balinese architecture.
Space Zoning System "Sanga Mandala" in Balinese Traditional Architecture
Looking at the division plan from traditional Balinese architecture, you will find a similar pattern because the zoning arrangement of traditional Balinese architecture uses the concept of "Sangga Mandala", where the building is divided into 9 sections (3 × 3) with the concept of main division, madya, nista. determine the function of each space.
The nine zoning divisions of traditional Balinese architecture are:
Regulations in Home Yard Arrangement in Balinese Traditional Architecture
One of the elements in traditional Balinese architecture is the existence of a house yard which is generally located in the middle of a traditional Balinese architectural complex. Uniquely,
in determining the yard in traditional Balinese architecture, there are rules and restrictions that must be followed. Some of them are:
• Ngeluanin Pura: not adjacent to the eastern or northern part of the temple unless there are dividers such as alleys, rice fields, fields, or rivers.
• Numbak Rurung: not allowed the house directly opposite the end of the road
• Karang Kalingkuhan: not flanked by yards or houses from other families.
• Karang Kalebon Amuk: should not be covered by roofing from other people's houses.
• Karang Negen: must not be directly adjacent to public roads.
Balinese Traditional Architecture and Tri Angga Structure Concept
The structure of the building with the traditional Balinese architectural style is inseparable from the traditional philosophy, namely "Tri Angga" which is divided into 3 parts according to the balance of natural preservation.
In the principles of traditional Balinese architecture, the building structure is divided into:
• Utama (head): the highest symbol embodied in the form of a roof, in traditional Balinese architecture the roof is generally made of palm fiber and alang-alang. But now it has developed into tiles and other modern materials.
• Madya (body): the shape of the building walls, windows and doors typical of Balinese architecture.
• Nista (foot): it is the lower part of a building, the foundation of the house or under the house that is used as a support. Generally using stone or brick.
Basically, all concepts in traditional Balinese architecture refer to cosmology, nature, culture, and of course the ergonomics of the occupants themselves. In the process there are also many cultural rituals involved.